How to Start work of excavation

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How to Start work of excavation

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Excavation: The Contractor after obtaining the "Construction drawing" from the Architects and Engineers office will orient the building according to the center line drawing using his own specific instruments and the same will be cross-checked by the Engineer-in-Charge. The contractor has to assist him with all tools and plants necessary for checking. The bottom level of excavation for foundations shall be inspected and passed before foundations are constructed. 

 The bottom of all excavated areas shall be trimmed, leveled, watered,  and well rammed. Any undulations in rocky bed including blasting if any, have to be leveled by the contractor at his cost, and for filling in pockets and undulations no extra quantity or rate will be allowed to the contractor. For bailing out water, the contractor will not be paid any extra payment. Only vertical excavation shall be done. No undermining is allowed. The excavated loose earth is to be deposited away by at least 1.50 meters or width of excavation whichever is more. In a classification of soils, the architect's version is final and binding. 

 The rates for earthwork in excavation include the following works and these shall not be measured and paid separately under excavation, viz., 

 1) Setting out works profiles etc. 

 2) Site clearance, such as cleaning grass and vegetation. 

 3) Unauthorized battering\benching. 

 4) Forming `dead man' or leaving steps etc. 

 5) Excavation for insertion of planking and strutting. 

 6) Removal of slips or falls on earth.

 7) Bailing out water due to rains or sub-soil water. 

 8) Slinging or supporting pipes, electric cables, etc., met during excavation. 


1. Deposit in horizontal layers not exceeding 200 mm thick before compaction. 

 2. Each layer shall be uniformly moist and at the optimum moisture content for compliance purposes. 


1. Compact filling after grading and leveling surfaces.

 2. Compact filling in layers, adding any necessary extra fill and water, to attain the minimum dry densities as tabulated in the table appended at the end of this Section. 

 3. The Architect will inspect each layer of fill after compaction. Do not place further layers without approval. 

 4. Compact filling using a vibratory plate, roller, or other approved equipment, making the required number of passes with the equipment to obtain specified densities. Each trip of equipment shall overlap the previous trip by 500 mm. 

 5. Confine compaction operations to areas adequate in size for establishing an orderly pattern of compaction. 

 6. Grade the top surface of filling after compaction to give a uniform surface within specified tolerances. 

7. Necessary core cutting test shall be conducted by the Contractor as per IS Standards at his cost.

The excavation process for a building is one of the most important components and a very critical part of the construction project, hence it is best done by professionals who have years of experience in undertaking this work. The excavation process is done by contractors who have expertise in drilling and blasting rocks. Excavation is the only stage in construction works that occurs in the open field and hence is an important activity in the construction process. Usually, Excavation Contractors are the first contractors to start their activities on-site and get penalized if the excavation is not completed within the fixed time period. To avoid penalties and to fulfill the requirements of the Engineer-in-Charge, the Excavation Contractors have to execute the excavation works diligently and reach the depth specified in the depth shaft. Hence Excavation Contractors need to execute the works with perfection and need to be very careful about the quality

1. Soil Investigation:

Soil investigation is the systematic examination of the soil's physical, chemical, and other properties at a particular location. This process is carried out in order to understand the soil’s physical characteristics and its suitability for a certain construction. The goal of soil investigation is to find out, among other things, the soil’s bearing capacity, the soil’s moisture content, and the soil’s load-bearing capacity. This information is then used to help determine whether or not the soil is suitable for construction and the types of foundation that should be used for the specific construction. A soil investigation is often required when planning the construction of a new structure, especially a building. Soil investigation is a process of collecting information about the soil that is to be used for the construction of a building. The information that is collected is based on the characteristics of soil, which is obtained by analyzing the soil samples. This investigation is a must in any type of construction process, even though the reasons are different. It is a more important process when the site of construction is a low-lying area or an area that is prone to floods. However, even if these are not a concern, it is still a good idea to carry out a soil investigation.

2. Excavation and Deep Drilling:

The Excavation is done by the Contractor who is paid by the cubic meter. The Contractor will not start the work until he gets the go-ahead from the Engineer-in-Charge. The output of this work is ready ground to receive the foundation and if the soil is a bit hard, the Contractor will do deep drilling to make it softer. In this case, the contractor will be paid by the depth of the hole. If the foundation is a slab, the Contractor will excavate the soil to the required level and will leave some extra "bumpers" to make sure that the slab is not damaged.

Every construction project begins with digging. If a structure is to be built on an empty piece of land, the first step is to excavate the site. To dig out the earth for construction or mining purposes, you need to have the proper equipment. The job of an excavator is to remove soil from an area. It can be as easy as digging out a small hole or as complex as digging a trench across a big open space. The end goal of excavating is to remove the soil, bring it to the surface and place it elsewhere. So the first thing you need to do is to determine the depth of the hole you need to dig. The depth of the excavation will determine the type of equipment you need to use. Depending on the depth of the hole, you may need to hire a deep boring contractor

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